Terminology Used During the Library Component of FYE 101


Academic Journal: See Scholarly Journal.

Bibliography: A listing of authors and their works that may be useful to readers of a book or research paper. This listing may be found at the back of research-related books or papers. The sources listed in the bibliography may or may not be cited within the book or paper.

Boolean Operators: Also known as Logical Operators or Search Operators. Boolean operators are named after George Boole, a mathematician. The words AND, OR, and NOT (or variations such as + and -) are used to combine search terms.

  • AND is used to narrow a search.
  • OR is used to broaden a search.
  • NOT is used to eliminate a search term from a search.
See Campus Compass: Navigating the University Curriculum (the CSS manual).

Citation: A reference in a research paper that identifies and gives credit to the sources that were used. The citation can appear within the body or the paper and/or at the end of the paper in a reference list.

  • APA Citation Format: A citation format outlined by the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) (5th edition). This is the citation format required by the instructors of Sullivan University.

Hyperlinks to further information about APA:

  • See Campus Compass: Navigating the University Curriculum (the CSS manual).
Digitalized Information: Digitalized information consists of documents, words, or other sources that have been formatted into an electronic format.

Electronic Databases: Digitalized information found in a database that can be accessed through a computer. In electronic databases, a computer program assists the user in selecting desired pieces of data.

Hyperlinks to further information about electronic databases can be found at:

Hyperlinks: Hyperlinks (found on Web pages) allow users to use a mouse to click on buttons or highlighted text in order to get to other web pages containing text, pictures, sound, or videos.

Invisible Web: The Invisible Web is the part of the World Wide Web that Web search tools cannot "get to" or add to their indexes. This may include information on subscription databases or web sites that deny access to the search tools. It may also include websites containing very technical or specific information that is rarely searched for, so the majority of the search tools do not go to the expense and bother of indexing these pages.

Hyperlinks to further information about the Invisible Web can be found at:

  • See Campus Campus: Navigating the University Curriculum (the CSS manual).
Logical Operators: See Boolean Operators.

MetaSearch Engines: These are search engines that search the Web using more than one search engine at a time. For example, 37.com is a MetaSearch engine that searches through 37 search engines at one time.

Hyperlinks to further information about MetaSearch Engines can be found at:

See Campus Compass: Navigating the University Curriculum (the CSS manual).

Peer-Reviewed Journal: See Scholarly Journal.

Popular Magazines: A type of periodical that is intended for a general, non-specialized audience. Articles in the publication are usually written by journalists or free-lance writers. Popular Magazines contain advertising and come out at frequent intervals.

Hyperlinks to more information about popular magazines can be found at:

See Campus Compass: Navigating the University Curriculum (the CSS manual).

Print Resources: These are materials that are physically found in a library or other location. Print resources are hard copies, i.e. found in a paper format, not in a digitalized (electronic) format. Think of print resources as something that can be picked up and carried by hand, versus an electronic resource, which is found in a digitalized format using a computer.

Proximity Operators: Proximity operators can be used to conduct a precise search. These operators specify the closeness and order of the search terms. Different databases may use different proximity operators. Common proximity operators include:

  • PRE: PRE can be used between two search terms with a number in order to indicate how many words can be found between the terms. The terms must be in order.
  • For example, George precede/2 Bush finds George Bush, George W. Bush, and George Walker Bush. George must precede Bush and be found within two words of Bush.
  • WITHIN: WITHIN is similar to PRECEDE but the terms can be in any order.
  • For example, dog within/2 cat would find dog and cat, cat and dog, dog likes cat, cat hates dog, etc. Dog and cat must be within two words of each other.

Reference List: A listing of authors and their works usually found at the end of a research paper or an academic article/book. This is also referred to as a Reference List or a Citation Page. The reference page gives credit to the sources that were used in the paper. Remote Access: The term "remote access" is used in related to Internet or Web resources. If an article or other item is remotely accessible, the item can be retrieved from any Internet or Web-connected computer. The computer can be on- or off-campus, i.e. at school, work, home, or at another location.

Scholarly Journal: Also known as a Peer-Reviewed Journal or Academic Journal. A type of periodical that contains detailed, referenced articles written by experts in a particular field. The articles are reviewed and scrutinized by a panel of experts. Most academic journals contain no little or no advertising.

Hyperlinks to further information about scholarly journals can be found at:

See Campus Compass: Navigating the University Curriculum (the CSS manual).

Search Engines: Search engines are a Web compilation that contain some or all of the words appearing on various Web pages. The Web pages have been compiled and indexed by the search engine software. "Robots" or "spiders" scan the Internet and collect information about Web pages. The information is indexed and placed in the search engine. The information compiled by a search engine can be searched. IMPORTANT: When you search for information using a search engine, you are searching in that particular search engine database, NOT the entire Web.

See Campus Compass: Navigating the University Curriculum (the CSS manual).

Search Operators: See Boolean Operators.

Subject Directories: Web subject directories are a collection of Web sites gathered by the creators of the directory or submitted by the publishers of Web sites. Web sites in a directory are classified by subject by people who evaluate the Web sites.

See Campus Compass: Navigating the University Curriculum (the CSS manual).

See the Web Directory section of the Internet Tutorial.